Current situation of manufacturing technology of t

2022-08-06
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The current situation of wind turbine blade manufacturing process and the current market pattern in China

at present, a large number of foreign wind turbine blades are made of composite materials, and are developing towards large-scale, low-cost, high-performance, lightweight, multi airfoil and flexibility. However, the domestic fan blades started late, which is a certain distance from the requirements of high-performance blades. At present, large foreign wind turbine blade manufacturers have actively rushed to China, such as LM, Vestas, gamesa and Suzlon, which have settled in Tianjin to produce blades locally and occupy a large market share. Major domestic manufacturers such as Zhongfu Lianzhong and Baoding Huiteng have introduced technologies. The national support for renewable and clean energy has accelerated the development of wind power generation, and also provided a rare development opportunity for the development of large composite blades in China. Faced with huge market demand and strong international competition, China's large composite blades have great development opportunities and challenges

development status of wind turbine blade manufacturing process

traditional composite wind turbine blades are mostly manufactured by hand paste process. The main characteristics of the hand lay up process are that it is mainly manual labor, easy to operate, low cost, but also low efficiency, unstable quality and poor working environment. It is mostly used for the forming of small and medium-sized blades. Therefore, the main disadvantages of the manual paste process in the production of fan blades are that the product quality is highly dependent on the operation proficiency of workers and environmental conditions, the production efficiency is low, the product quality uniformity fluctuates greatly, the dynamic and static balance of the product is poor, and the waste products are high. Especially for high-performance blades with complex aerodynamic shape and sandwich structure, the second processing of bonding is often required. The bonding process requires bonding platform or framework to ensure the bonding surface, and the production process is more complex and difficult

the latest development of blade forming method is RTM, namely resin transfer molding method. The fiber preform is placed in the mold cavity, then injected with resin, heated and pressurized into a universal material testing machine, which can be used to test many materials. RTM is a recognized low-cost manufacturing method in the world. It has developed rapidly and is widely used. It should be noted that RTM is a general term of this method, which can have many branches. VARTM and scrimp methods are commonly used to produce large blades. VARTM refers to the vacuum assisted RTM, which injects resin while vacuuming. At this time, only one side of the mold is used, and the other side uses a vacuum bag. Scrimp, namely siemann composite melt forming method, was invented by American siemann. It only needs one side mold and is simple. The other side is also a vacuum bag. It is suitable for manufacturing large and complex parts. TPI composites has used this method to manufacture 30m long blades. Vestas and gamesa both adopt the pre filling method, which cuts the pre filling layer into appropriate size and puts it into the upper and lower mold sections. A hollow wing beam is also layered on a mandrel handle. The plastic film is laid on three models, and the vacuum method is used to compress the multi-layer fibers together and squeeze out any hidden bubbles. When the model is heated to 120 ℃ in the vacuum state, the epoxy resin polymer will become a material with very low viscosity. The release of air will help the pre filling layer to be fixed together. After a few minutes, the temperature will be raised to cure the epoxy resin polymer. After curing, the plastic film will be removed to integrate the blade components

with the development of blade technology, thermoplastic materials have been applied. LM glasfibe manufactures blades with a mixture of fiberglass, carbon fiber and thermoplastic materials. When the yarn is laid into the mold and heated to a certain temperature, the plastic will melt and convert the yarn into synthetic materials, which may shorten the production time of the blade by 50%

China's wind power blade market pattern

1. Domestic enterprises

in May 2008, the number of manufacturers engaged in wind power blades in China was only 30, but only two years later, this number rapidly increased by three times to more than 120. Among them, there are more than a dozen enterprises that have formed mass production capacity. The foreign-funded enterprises are mainly represented by Vestas, Ge, LM and gamesa, and the domestic enterprises are represented by AVIC Huiteng, Zhongfu Lianzhong and Sinoma technology. The market share of domestic enterprises accounts for 70%, most of which are the shares of the three giants. "

according to the solution that there is a bright future in the energy storage market, behind the rapid expansion of the number of enterprises is the shortage of leaves and high profit margin. At present, the average profit margin of the wind power blade industry is more than 10%, but the blade is still in a state of short supply

under this situation, more and more enterprises flock to the blade manufacturing industry, and the profit margin of the whole industry is gradually diluted. It also becomes a good time for the leaf oligarchs to merge, expand and extend the industrial chain under the situation of low industry

2. Foreign enterprises

most of the world's major large-scale wind turbine manufacturers produce their own blades. Among the independent large blade manufacturers, Denmark LM glasfiber a/s is the world's leading manufacturer of wind turbine blades and the only supplier operating on a global basis. LM is active in all major wind energy markets. It has established production plants in 8 countries around the world and has expandable production capacity in Asia (two plants in India and two plants in China), North America and Europe. LM company has established aerm glass fiber manufacturing Co., Ltd. in Urumqi, Tianjin and Qinhuangdao. Every three wind turbines currently in operation in the world are equipped with blades of the company

vestas group, including the former neg MICON, is the world's largest wind turbine manufacturer. Its products operate in more than 40 countries on six continents. Carbon fiber is used in the beams of blades in 44m long, v-90 type 3.0MW wind turbines they manufacture. Vestas has been actively involved in the development of wind power in Heilongjiang Province for a long time. By the end of December, 2009, Vestas had installed more than 2000MW wind turbines in China, becoming one of the most important members of China's wind power market. Gamesa of Spain used carbon fiber/epoxy resin prepreg in the blades of their fans with rotating diameters of 87m (g87) and 90m (G90) 2MW. The G90 blades are 44m long and about 7T in mass

3. Development direction of wind power blade manufacturers

seize the offshore wind power blade Market

in the coming years, the domestic offshore wind power installation will not have as much demand for blades as land wind power, but its requirements for blade quality will establish the market brand position of qualified enterprises. Being able to supply offshore wind power means that the comprehensive strength of blade enterprises is the highest in the industry. At present, Zhongfu Lianzhong supplies the Donghai Bridge Wind Farm, and Sinoma, also known as the electronic tensile testing machine, is still developing. The announcement of the bidding results of Jiangsu wind farm in the second half of 2010 will let the market see the latest competitive situation of domestic blade enterprises in the offshore wind power market

large scale, regionalization and intellectualization

with the continuous expansion of single unit capacity of wind turbine, the length of blades has also developed from about 20 meters to more than 60 meters. At present, the wind turbine with the largest capacity being developed in the world is 10MW, and its blade length has reached more than 75 meters. Different countries have different geographical and climatic characteristics, which also bring different requirements to the design of blades. For example, the phenomenon of low temperature, high wind and sand in the three northern regions of China, high temperature, humidity, multiple typhoons and low wind speed in the wind field in the coastal areas. This regionalization requires the research on a series of regionalization technologies such as anti typhoon blades, low wind speed blades, bionic blades and low noise blades. In the next stage, China's wind power research will focus on product design and technology research and development based on the characteristics of China's wind resources. In addition, intelligence is also the future trend of wind power technology development. The increasing size and weight of fan blades make the control of fan more and more difficult. Therefore, intelligent blade technology is also one of the important research directions of the new generation of wind power technology

III. problems in the development of wind turbine blades

in recent years, with the continuous increase of the size, some new problems have arisen in the production and manufacturing process of fan blades that have not been encountered in the previous production of small and medium-sized blades

blade has curing problem. In the process of blade production, due to the huge size of the mold, it is generally impossible to use the traditional external heating methods such as oven to heat up and cure it, which can only be carried out at room temperature, resulting in a long curing cycle of the blade, making it difficult to carry out more continuous production. At the same time, the production mode of curing treatment by light is seriously restricted by climatic factors. Generally, the leaf production base can only be established in the place with sufficient light

blade transportation. The length of 1.5MW wind power blade can reach 34 ~ 40m, and the mass can reach 5.8t. It is difficult to transport to the wind power plant after long-distance transportation. Generally, the transportation task is undertaken by professional large-scale transportation companies, which is expensive, and the transportation cost can reach 30000 yuan/piece. Some areas can not even be delivered at all, and the long-distance transportation problem has even become one of the bottlenecks restricting the development of wind power

transportation of fan blades with a length of 62m

Goldhofer spz-p 3AAA is specially designed for carrying fan blades and can transport fan blades with a length ranging from 20 m to 62 M

Goldhofer spz-p 3AAA Trailer

spz-p 3AAA's wide extensible flat roof has a bearing capacity of 13 tons and is 10 meters away from the front of the vehicle. This position is just where the fan blade is supported by the front beam of the frame. When the fan blades extend ten meters behind them, the rear cross member at the tail end of the trailer can be moved

according to Goldhofer, the design improves the mobility of the trailer and reduces the length of the trailer to 52 meters

the trailer has three rows of oscillating axles, which can provide a 60 ° steering angle. At the same time, its hydraulic suspension has a 60 cm shaft stroke, which means that the fan blades will not be impacted by any pressure in off-road transportation

three row oscillating axle

the gross weight of the trailer is 62 tons, the payload is 38.3 tons, and the deck height is 1 meter when loaded. Using this trailer to transport fan blades fully meets the transportation requirements of Vestas. (end)

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