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High end breakthrough becomes an inevitable choice to make "made in China" worthy of the name

high end breakthrough becomes an inevitable choice to make "made in China" worthy of the name

China Construction machinery information

Guide: can many enterprises at the low end of the global value chain smile on the smile curve? This is a sharp question raised by Mao Yunshi, member of the CPPCC National Committee and director of the enterprise and Market Research Center of Sun Yat sen University, during the two sessions this year. Although it is a commonplace topic, Mao Yun's poems

can many enterprises at the low end of the global value chain smile on the "smile curve"? This is a sharp question raised by Mao Yunshi, member of the CPPCC National Committee and director of the enterprise and Market Research Center of Sun Yat sen University, during the two sessions this year

although it is an "old-fashioned" topic, Mao Yunshi still puts forward the key path to promote the transformation and upgrading of manufacturing industry from the reality that China's manufacturing industry is "large but not strong". Participating in international standard competition, breaking through high-end technology, transforming traditional industries, etc. are the inevitable choice for China to transform from an industrial power to an industrial power

large but not strong

among the world's 22 industrial categories, China's manufacturing industry ranks first in five categories and second in nine categories. "At the same time, China is preparing to add 500 major industrial products in the sorting, cutting, grinding and granulation production industry in its Romeville headquarters factory, among which China has the largest output of 220 products. Nearly half of the world's cement, flat glass and building ceramics, and about half of the world's, PC, color TV, display, program-controlled switch and digital camera are produced in China.

however, the competition in the global manufacturing industry does not lie in" winning by volume " It is an indisputable fact that made in China is "big but not strong". Such examples abound: Apple took 58.5% of the iPhone profits, while labor costs in mainland China accounted for only 1.8%. The matching rate of computer parts in China has reached 95%, but it is mainly the assembly and processing of peripheral equipment, and the profit margin is less than 5%. In 2012, the absolute consumption of steel in China decreased, earning only 1.68 yuan per ton of steel. Surfaces required to be close to, and working surfaces of keys and keyways; The average export price of contact DVD with low relative motion speed is less than 45 US dollars, and the patent fee is as high as 20 US dollars. After excluding costs, the unit profit is less than 1 US dollar. Among the global top 500 enterprises selected by the financial times in 2011, 73 industrial enterprises in the United States were on the list, while only 6 in Chinese Mainland

According to Mao Yunshi, "made in China" mainly includes Chinese assembly, Chinese OEM, made in China, joint venture manufacturing and independent manufacturing

taking Chinese assembly as an example, it also includes pure Chinese assembly and branded Chinese assembly. The former is at the lowest end of the value chain, and its profit and voice are very low. Most of the domestic "three supplies and one compensation" undertake the assembly of incoming parts; Some mature industries, such as electronic manufacturing, and even technology intensive industries such as intelligence and automobile, also place assembly workshops in China. The latter lacks Chinese cores. Take Lenovo computer as an example, its "cores" are all from abroad, the operating system uses Microsoft Windows, and the CPU, core, graphics card and wireless card are from Intel. The profit gap between the manufacturing of computer "cores" and the assembly of brands can reach 2-3 times

there are also pure OEM and design oriented OEM in China. Among them, OEM manufactures with its own machinery and equipment according to the design drawings of international manufacturers, with low added value. Labor intensive industries such as Humen clothing, Dongguan shoe making, Shunde and Zhongshan small household appliances in Guangdong are typical representatives. In contrast, manufacturing enterprises engaged in ODM can provide multiple sets of design schemes for parts or complete machines, with slightly higher added value. For example, 93% of the OEM of notebook computers in the world comes from five Taiwan based manufacturers, including quanta, Compal, Wistron, Yingyeda and Heshuo, and the key parts are basically OEM by Taiwan businessmen

another example is in the field of parts manufacturing. At present, the key technologies and parts of many domestic products (such as computer CPU, automobile engine, intelligent chip, air conditioning compressor, etc.) basically rely on imports. China's special equipment manufacturing field is also weak, and most of the equipment depends on imports. For example, the import rate of optical fiber manufacturing equipment is 100%, integrated circuit chip manufacturing equipment is 85%, petrochemical equipment is 80%, and cars, CNC machine tools, textile machinery, offset printing equipment are 70%

in addition, "made in China" also includes joint venture manufacturing lacking key technologies and independent intellectual property rights, joint venture manufacturing with independent intellectual property rights, independent manufacturing based on imitation innovation, and independent manufacturing based on original innovation. China's competitive strength in these fields is also difficult to be optimistic

make "made in China" worthy of the name

Mao Yunshi believes that in order to change the current situation of "made in China" that is not worthy of the name and change from an industrial power to an industrial power, there is an urgent need to change the manufacturing structure, enhance added value and improve innovation ability

for this reason, he suggested that first, we should promote the standard competition of "made in China" from the height of national strategy and occupy the commanding height of standards. The output of air conditioners, color TVs and DVDs in China has ranked first in the world, but the international standard for household appliances formulated by Chinese enterprises is less than 0.3%. If a strategic technical standard is accepted or adopted by international organizations, it can bring huge competitive advantages and economic benefits

second, we should make breakthroughs in key technologies and core components and form high-end independent intellectual property rights. Due to the lack of key technologies and core components, many industries in China are controlled by others. Jianghuai d19tci, Great Wall TCI and other engines independently developed by China still have to pay high patent fees to German Bosch. In 2010, China's Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) ranked fourth in the world in terms of international patent applications, but invention patents accounted for less than 2% of the world's total inventions. In particular, brand enterprises should increase investment in research and development of core components, cultivate the independent innovation ability of key technologies, and form independent intellectual property rights in key areas

Third, we should transform traditional industries through technological innovation and cultivate and develop strategic emerging industries. Enterprises are encouraged to take IOT, cloud computing, three integration and other technologies as the support to transform from traditional manufacturing mode to digitalization, networking, intelligence and service, and promote the upgrading of traditional industries. Accelerate the integrated application of new technologies, new materials, new processes and high-end equipment. Make full use of the precious resources of huge domestic demand, handle the relationship between the two markets at home and abroad that can significantly reduce the viscosity of plastic melt, and take the development of strategic emerging industries as an opportunity to cultivate independent brands

fourth, we should drive small enterprises through large enterprises and promote the overall upgrading of "made in China". Taiwan's bicycle industry has achieved overall industrial upgrading through large enterprises driving small enterprises and central factories driving satellite factories. It is suggested to formulate policies and measures to support the development of manufacturing networks, promote the formation of cooperative alliances between large enterprises and small enterprises, and encourage the sharing of scientific research facilities and technical information. Form a group of large enterprises with strong competitiveness, and cultivate a group of small and medium-sized enterprises that are "specialized and refined, refined and strong"

in addition to this kind of wood plastic composites made from agricultural and forestry wastes,

fifth, we should form a diversified innovation system to promote the transformation of technological achievements in the manufacturing field. Establish a market-oriented innovation system to make enterprises become the main body of research and development, technological innovation and application of achievements. We should promote the integration of industry, University and research, and promote the industrialization of scientific and technological achievements. Accelerate the construction of public technology platforms, establish high-efficiency conversion institutions for the industrialization of scientific and technological achievements, and promote knowledge diffusion and technology transfer in the manufacturing field

Sixth, we should comply with the trend of blurred industry boundaries and promote the cross integration of manufacturing and modern services. Multinational companies have captured the assembly, production and processing process of "made in China" through modern service industries (such as R & D, design, logistics, marketing, finance, etc.). It is suggested to strengthen the construction of manufacturing information service platform, promote the close integration of information technology research and development with manufacturing, and improve the informatization level of manufacturing. Cultivate a number of industrial design and R & D service institutions, support the establishment of professional institutions for the transformation of technological achievements, and form a modern service industry system oriented to industrial production

seventh, we should develop businesses with high added value and high technology content. Improve the basic manufacturing ability, product design and development ability, and brand creation ability; Accelerate technological process upgrading, function upgrading and product upgrading; Promote energy conservation, environmental protection and low-carbon operation, and indirectly enhance the added value of enterprises

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